When you use somebody else’s words or ideas, you are borrowing their intellectual property. Give credit where it is due, because if you don’t you could be accused of plagiarism – a punishable offense. Also, if somebody wants to learn more about your topic, they can look up the sources you list on your Works Cited page and read them for themselves.
Watch this tutorial!
Because researching for a paper or speech is a learning process it is expected that students will sometimes borrow an author’s words and ideas for their own final product. Citation is the formal acknowledgement that you have done so. The form the citation takes will depend upon the academic discipline for which you are doing the research project.
- MLA (Modern Language Association) – arts and humanities.
- APA (American Psychological Association) – social sciences.
- Chicago Manual of Style – humanities and social sciences.
- Council of Science Editors (CSE) – sciences, medicine.
More about MLA and APA Style
- Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL):
- Links to APA and MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guides and other writing resources.
- BibMe Citation Guide:
- Explanations of how to cite numerous types of resources in MLA, APA, Chicago & Turabian styles.
- Marquette University APA Citation Tutorial:
- Learn how to organize a paper in APA style, format citations, and recognize plagiarism.
- Duke University Libraries
- Assembling a List of Works Cited in Your Paper:
- Provides examples in MLA, APA, CSE and other formats for numerous types of resources.
- Research and Documentation Online:
- Guidelines and examples of the various formatting styles. This information can also be found in the book Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age, 5th ed., by Diana Hacker.
You supply the information, they turn it into a bibliography.
- Easy Bib:
- MLA 7th ed., APA 6th ed., and Chicago 15th ed. (7th ed. Turabian).
- BibMe Bibliography Maker:
- Choose resource type and use “Manual Entry Mode.”
- Son of Citation Machine:
- “Motto:Respect the time & creative effort of those whose information you use.”
- Noodle Tools:
- From home page choose NoodleBib Express.
Citing Articles from Research Databases
For a clear and comprehensive guide to the steps of the research process, please check out this website created by Joyce Kazman Valenza for her students at Springfield Township (PA) High School.